What is Biology and Its Branches

What is biology and its branches

What is Biology and Its Branches?

The subject of biology is the study of various living things. Examples of living things include bacteria with one cell and multicellular organisms like animals and plants. The organisms being studied divide the vast field of biological science into numerous subfields.

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1. Zoology

One of the fields of biology that studies animals is zoology. The field of zoology was founded on the Greek words “Zoon,” which means “animal,” and “logos,” which means “study. “The three subfields that make up zoology are systematic zoology, which studies evolution, taxonomy, the science of naming living things, and organismal zoology, which studies animals in our biosphere.

Animals used for and not used for production are studied in applied zoology. The following subfields further subdivide Applied Zoology: aquaculture, which focuses on the production and care of aquatic animals and plants; The study of everything pertaining to pigs is the subject of piggery. Applied entomology, which is concerned with insect manipulation for human use; Vermiculture, which focuses on the breeding of worms that burrow into the soil to produce organic fertilizers.


The study of insects and how they interact with humans, the environment, and other organisms are known as entomology. Developments in biological and chemical pest control, food and fiber production and storage, pharmaceutical epidemiology, biological diversity, and a variety of other scientific fields are all based on the study of insects.


The study of animal behavior, particularly in their natural or ancestral environments, is the focus of etiology, a subfield of zoology.


Anatomy is the in-depth study of an organism’s internal organs, structure, and functions. It is applicable to the anatomy of plants and animals.


The study of the processes and functions of various living things is known as physiology. Cell physiology is the study of the mechanism and interaction of cells. Developmental physiology is the study of physiological processes connected to embryonic evolution. Environmental physiology is the study of plants’ responses to fire, radiation, and temperature. Comparative physiology, which roughly translates to the study of animals other than humans, is the fourth subfield of physiology.


The study of genes is called genetics. This subfield of biology is concerned with the inherited characteristics of all living things.


The field of study that is also referred to as phytology is botany. The vast field of botany, one of the most prominent branches of biology, is the study of the life and development of fungi, algae, and plants. The study of plant species’ structure, growth, diseases, chemical and physical properties, metabolism, and evolution is also part of botany. Because they produce oxygen, food, fiber, medicines, fuel, and medicine, studying plant life is essential.

Biology of Evolution

Biology of Evolution We are all aware that more complex organisms emerged from simpler forms. A specific subfield of biology known as evolutionary biology focuses primarily on the study of species evolution.

Development biology, as its name suggests, teaches students about the various stages of a living thing’s growth and development.


The study of how various organisms interact with one another and with their chemical and physical environment is known as ecology. Ecology is a branch of biology. This branch of biology focuses on studying environmental issues like pollution and how they affect the eco-cycle.


Cryobiology is the study of how organisms and living cells are affected by extremely low temperatures.


Biochemistry, a branch of biology, focuses on the chemical processes of all living things. Biochemistry is the study of how cells’ components like proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and biomolecules work.


The broad field of science known as “biotechnology” or “biological science” is concerned primarily with the technological exploitation of living things. Typically, it entails studying enzymes, vaccines, and other substances. Its goal is to develop novel strategies for long-term growth. In this branch of modern biotechnology, genetic engineering and bioprocess engineering are the two most common methods.


The study of the immune system, including the humoral, cell-mediated, and immune response aspects, is known as immunology. To put it succinctly, it entails studying the immune system—its components, its biological process, its functioning physiology, its type, and its disorder. Because the immune system protects the body from invading infections, this field of study is crucial.


The economy, human health, and the environment all depend on microorganisms. Microbiology is the branch of biology that studies microscopic organisms like bacteria, fungi, and other living things that can’t be seen with the naked eye. These microorganisms influence creatures, the climate, the total food supply, and medical care too. Environmental microbiology, veterinary microbiology, food microbiology, pharmaceutical microbiology, and medical microbiology are the various subfields of microbiology.


Biophysics is the study of how living organisms or cells interact with mechanical or electrical energy. The field is further subdivided into the following subfields of biophysics:

The study of the forces exerted by gravity and muscles on the skeleton is known as biomechanics. The study of the static voltage of biological cells and the electric currents that travel through muscles and nerves is known as bioelectricity. Quantum biophysics studies the behavior of living matter at the molecular and sub-molecular level, whereas cellular biophysics studies membrane function and structure as well as cellular excitation. In relation to the dynamic behavior and molecular structure of various living systems like viruses, Molecular Biophysics defines biological functions.

We are able to observe, evaluate, and resolve issues pertaining to plants and animals because biology is a science. If you’re interested in biology, a career in any field can be very rewarding.

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